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which are the most common and how to prevent them

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Introduction

Nutritional deficiencies, especially those relating to mineral salts and vitamins, are often caused by an incorrect diet. Eating in an unbalanced manner, in fact, causes deficiencies of vitamins, minerals, fibre, good fats and nutrients which ensure the optimal functioning of the body. There are, more than others, more widespread nutritional deficiencies which, if not treated, can cause the onset of certain pathologies. At the same time, some diseases have a specific symptom of a mineral or vitamin deficiency which can be combated through a healthy and balanced diet.

Vitamin deficiency

The vitamins often lacking are above all those of the B group – especially B6 and B12 – vitamin C and D.

Vitamin D deficiency

Vitamin D is fundamental for various biological functions, such as the homeostasis and metabolism of calcium and phosphate, promoting the physiological growth of the skeleton, bone remodeling and preventing degeneration with advanced age. A deficiency of vitamin D, in fact, manifests itself above all with bone and muscle pain, but also problems with the nervous system. To prevent and counteract this nutritional deficit, it is good to expose yourself to the sun (paying attention to the hottest hours and always protecting your skin from ultraviolet rays), and consume foods that are particularly rich in it such as fish – salmon, herring, sardines, above all – and egg yolk.

Vitamin C deficiency

Deficiency of vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, manifests itself above all with tiredness, weakness and irritability. In severe stages, scurvy can also occur, a vitamin deficiency which in this case causes bruising, tooth and gum problems, dry hair and skin, and anemia. Vitamin C is essential for the formation, growth and repair of bone, skin and connective tissue. Not only that, it is important for the health of teeth and gums and allows the body to absorb iron. To prevent vitamin C deficiency, consume: citrus fruits, tomatoes, potatoes, broccoli and all vegetables from the cabbage family, strawberries and berries, and sweet peppers.

Deficiency of B vitamins

Not one but several vitamins: of all those in group B, we are often deficient in B12, which is found in foods of animal origin, namely meat, because it is present in the soil in which the grass on which they eat grows. But no, it is not a vitamin that only vegetarians or vegans lack: given that animals eat less and less grass and more and more feed, and also given that the soil is increasingly poorer in it, meat is increasingly lacking in it. , so it is not uncommon for omnivores to also need to supplement B12. Just do some blood tests to check: one Severe deficiency causes disorders such as anemia and skin problems.

Iron deficiency

Iron is a fundamental mineral for some biological functions, including the formation of hemoglobin. When there is one iron deficiencycaused by poor dietary intake, or by absorption problems, the hemoglobin production is insufficient. This causes, for example, problems with the circulation of oxygen in the blood. Iron deficiency is the main cause of iron deficiency anemia. To fill up on iron, it is recommended to take generous portions of llegumes, dried fruit, red meat (which should always be consumed in moderation), heart and offal, horse meat, clams and molluscs, dried mushrooms.

Potassium deficiency

Potassium deficiency is another common deficiency that nutrition helps to counteract and prevent. Potassium is one of the body's electrolytes, a mineral that contributes to the correct functioning of cells, nerves and muscles. When potassium levels are low, symptoms may occur such as: muscle weakness, cramps, spasms or even paralysis, changes in heart rhythm. It is often associated with vomiting, nausea. Among the foods richest in potassium we find: spinach, Brussels sprouts, fennel, artichokes, endive, dried legumes, bananas.

Magnesium deficiency

Magnesium is a fundamental mineral for the body. Essential for the nervous system and for the health of the bone. The magnesium deficiency manifests itself above all with mheadache, irritability, tiredness, difficulty falling asleep. To prevent or treat this deficiency it is a good idea to include foods such as: dried fruit, green leafy vegetables, corn, spinach, artichokes, fruits such as bananas.

Omega 3 deficiency

Omega3, i.e. good fats, help keep the heart healthy and protect the circulatory system. When Omega3 is deficient, cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood can worsen, but blood pressure can also be affected and rise. Not only:

Among the foods richest in good fats are fish such as salome, mackerel, sardines, cod, bonito, wakame seaweed, salmon or sturgeon eggs, bottarga, oilseeds.

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